Nonoxynol-9 Induces Apoptosis of Endometrial Explants by Both Caspase-Dependent and -Independent Apoptotic Pathways1

John K. Jain, Aimin Li, Deborah L. Nucatola, Parviz Minoo, Juan C. Felix
2005 Biology of Reproduction  
Contraceptive microbicides formulated as vaginal gels offer the possibility of women-controlled contraception and prevention of HIV infection. The effects of these gels on the upper reproductive tract are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether nonoxynol-9 (N-9) induces apoptosis in human endometrium using endometrial explant as a model. Apoptosis was determined by gel electrophoresis for the detection of DNA fragmentation and by immunohistochemistry using the M30
more » ... oDEATH and anti-cleaved caspase-3 (CASP3) antibodies for the detection of caspase activity. The ability of the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor and CASP3-specific inhibitor to prevent N-9-induced cell death was measured. Expression of apoptosis-related genes such as BCL2, BAX, Fas receptor (FAS), and Fas ligand (FASLG) was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. This study demonstrated that N-9 induced DNA fragmentation and caspase activity in endometrial explants in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Caspase inhibitors did not fully prevent the N-9-induced DNA fragmentation. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that FAS and FASLG were largely increased following N-9 treatment. Together, these results suggested that apoptosis triggered by N-9 in endometrial explants is mediated upstream via FAS and FASLG, followed by CASP3 activation leading to final cell death. It appears that other factors besides caspases are also involved in the N-9-induced apoptosis.
doi:10.1095/biolreprod.104.037168 pmid:15829625 fatcat:24axbhloufgopiqz5gaqlzxsey