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Lacunae and canaliculi spaces of osteocytes are remarkably well preserved in fossilized bone and serve as an established proxy for bone cells. The earliest bone in the fossil record is acellular (anosteocytic), followed by cellular (osteocytic) bone in the jawless relatives of jawed vertebrates, the osteostracans, about 400 million years ago. Virtually nothing is known about the physiological pressures that would have initially favored osteocytic over anosteocytic bone. We apply focused iondoi:10.1126/sciadv.abb9113 pmid:33789889 fatcat:ujatzsswtncojo7ndoyft7z5wy