CO2 Foam as an Improved Fracturing Fluid System for Unconventional Reservoir [chapter]

Shehzad Ahmed, Alvinda Sri Hanamertani, Muhammad Rehan Hashmet
2019 Directional Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing - Theory and Practice [Working Title]  
Unconventional reservoirs have gained substantial attention due to huge amount of stored reserves which are challenging to produce. Innovative recovery techniques include horizontal drilling coupled with hydraulic fracturing are required to optimize the production of hydrocarbons. There are numerous concerns associated with the utilization of conventional water-based polymeric solutions for fracturing shales. However, the gas utilization has been found as an exceptional stimulation approach
more » ... iding various benefits. CO 2 foam, an energized fracturing fluid, has been used to overcome the limitation of conventional fracturing fluid. CO 2 foam is able to enhance hydrocarbon production by addressing the critical issues associated with the conventional technique. The rheological property of CO 2 foam fracturing fluid is a key factor controlling the efficiency of overall processes. Different models describing the foam flow behavior have been produced and numerous investigations have been conducted to explain the rheological behavior of foam for fracturing purpose. Various process variables, such as foam quality, temperature, pressure, shear rate, surfactant concentration, and salinity strongly affect foam rheology behavior giving an impact on designing foam fracturing fluid at required fracturing conditions. In-depth analysis and information gathering are substantially required to ascertain the performance of CO 2 foam as an improved fracturing fluid system.
doi:10.5772/intechopen.84564 fatcat:5nnjg6hw5zhc7p5glsafnwe5uu