An Approximation Algorithm for Haplotype Inference by Maximum Parsimony

Yao-Ting Huang, Kun-Mao Chao, Ting Chen
2005 Journal of Computational Biology  
This paper studies haplotype inference by maximum parsimony using population data. We define the optimal haplotype inference (OHI) problem as given a set of genotypes and a set of related haplotypes, find a minimum subset of haplotypes that can resolve all the genotypes. We prove that OHI is NP-hard and can be formulated as an integer quadratic programming (IQP) problem. To solve the IQP problem, we propose an iterative semidefinite programming-based approximation algorithm, (called
more » ... . We show that this algorithm finds a solution within a factor of O(log n) of the optimal solution, where n is the number of genotypes. This algorithm has been implemented and tested on a variety of simulated and biological data. In comparison with three other methods, (1) HAPAR, which was implemented based on the branching and bound algorithm, (2) HAPLOTYPER, which was implemented based on the expectation-maximization algorithm, and (3) PHASE, which combined the Gibbs sampling algorithm with an approximate coalescent prior, the experimental results indicate that SDPHapInfer and HAPLOTYPER have similar error rates. In addition, the results generated by PHASE have lower error rates on some data but higher error rates on others. The error rates of HAPAR are higher than the others on biological data. In terms of efficiency, SDPHapInfer, HAPLOTYPER, and PHASE output a solution in a stable and consistent way, and they run much faster than HAPAR when the number of genotypes becomes large.
doi:10.1089/cmb.2005.12.1261 pmid:16379533 fatcat:mnw7qtslq5a65bejmuq33fsgcm