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Vapor bubbles are formed in liquids by two mechanisms: evaporation (temperature above the boiling threshold) and cavitation (pressure below the vapor pressure). The liquid resists in these metastable (overheating and tensile, respectively) states for a long time since bubble nucleation is an activated process that needs to surmount the free energy barrier separating the liquid and the vapor states. The bubble nucleation rate is difficult to assess and, typically, only for extremely smalldoi:10.1103/physrevfluids.3.053604 fatcat:b5ilzs2cdvbhnbf6kl33pfzrua