Bioactive monolaurin as an antimicrobial and its potential to improve the immune system and against COVID-19: a review
Monolaurin is monoacylglycerol which is a bioactive lipid since it can affect the human biological systems. This review discusses the bioactive properties of monolaurin, especially its role as an antibacterial, immune system enhancement, and its ability as an antiviral so that it has the potential to fight against various viral attacks. Monolaurin can act as an antibacterial in inhibiting the growth of several pathogenic bacteria, especially gram-positive bacteria. Monolaurin is known to be
... is known to be able to enhance the immune system through modulation of various immune systems, controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines, activating and attracting leukocytes to the site of infection. Monolaurin can also act as an antiviral, especially against enveloped viruses, such as Maedi-visna virus, vesicular stomatitis, herpes simplex-1, measles, HIV, cytomegalovirus, influenza, and corona. Monolaurin inhibits the virus through the mechanism of the disintegration of the viral membrane, prevents binding of the viral protein to the host-cell membrane, inhibits the process of assembling the viral RNA, and the process of virus maturation in the replication cycle. Therefore monolaurin has the potential for human consumption to boost the immune system and ward off various virus attacks, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the cause of COVID-19 which became a pandemic in the world.