Minimisation of regulated and unregulated disinfection by-products in drinking water

Chrysoula Sfynia, Anglian Water, Tom Bond, Michael Templeton
2018
This research, involving a collaboration between Imperial College London and Anglian Water, and had the overall aim to understand the occurrence and fate of a wide range of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during drinking water distribution and to establish operational strategies to simultaneously control them in water supply systems. Therefore, the research is essentially centred on two main issues: i) improving our understanding of the impact of water quality and operational parameters on
more » ... parameters on regulated and unregulated DBPs in water distribution networks, and ii) the validation of a prediction tool to proactively design and adapt operational practices to minimise DBPs. The research explored these issues through a series of experiments focused on the analysis of 29 DBPs upon chlorination and chloramination, under various water ages and water quality conditions, by sampling from four locations in four full-scale distribution systems in four sampling rounds and simultaneously running Simulated Distribution System (SDS) tests. This resulted in one of the most comprehensive databases of the occurrence and behaviour in distribution systems of regulated trihalomethanes (THMs), the likely-to-be-soon-regulated-in-the-UK haloacetic acids (HAAs), as well as unregulated haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloacetamides (HAcAms) of potential health significance, and their individual species. For the first time, SDS tests were shown to be able to successfully predict the levels and speciation of HANs and HAcAms in chlorinated and chloraminated systems, by direct comparison with actual distribution water samples. The configuration of SDS tests addressed the spatial and temporal variation of the selected DBPs, indicating that even though THM concentrations significantly increase with water age (on average by ~54% between water ages of6-106 h) and present high seasonal dependence. together with HAAs. The latter, HANs, and HAcAms concentrations had fluctuations that resulted in less pronounced overall increases, with the two N-DBPs relative [...]
doi:10.25560/58879 fatcat:ol6nedhosjcnnojltnulx6xiuu