Fra Perikles til Platon – Fra demokratisk politisk praksis til totalitær politisk filosofi

Øjvind Larsen
2018 Slagmark  
Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy and oligarchy to democracy and tyranny at the bottom. Following Karl Popper, the article argues that Plato's political philosophy is a totalitarian philosophy that emphasizes the similarities between
more » ... milarities between democracy and tyranny, which it considers to be the two worst forms of government. Plato's denigration of democracy has dominated the tradition of political philosophy until recent times. This article, however, shows that political philosophy in fact originates in democracy, especially as developed by the sophists, and that philosophy is only a form of sophism with a similar origin in ancient Greek democracy. A discussion of Pericles' funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato's political philosophy in the Republic.
doi:10.7146/sl.v0i59.104730 fatcat:qfco2eu7dnhfbhryof3ohhodey