Local Prefrontal Cortex TMS-Induced Reactivity Is Related to Working Memory and Reasoning in Middle-Aged Adults
Frontiers in Psychology
IntroductionThe prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in cognition, particularly in executive functions. Cortical reactivity measured with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation combined with Electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is altered in pathological conditions, and it may also be a marker of cognitive status in middle-aged adults. In this study, we investigated the associations between cognitive measures and TMS evoked EEG reactivity and explored whether the effects of this relationship
... related to neurofilament light chain levels (NfL), a marker of neuroaxonal damage.MethodsFifty two healthy middle-aged adults (41–65 years) from the Barcelona Brain Health Initiative cohort underwent TMS-EEG, a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, and a blood test for NfL levels. Global and Local Mean-Field Power (GMFP/LMFP), two measures of cortical reactivity, were quantified after left prefrontal cortex (L-PFC) stimulation, and cognition was set as the outcome of the regression analysis. The left inferior parietal lobe (L-IPL) was used as a control stimulation condition.ResultsLocal reactivity was significantly associated with working memory and reasoning only after L-PFC stimulation. No associations were found between NfL and cognition. These specific associations were independent of the status of neuroaxonal damage indexed by the NfL biomarker and remained after adjusting for age, biological sex, and education.ConclusionOur results demonstrate that TMS evoked EEG reactivity at the L-PFC, but not the L-IPL, is related to the cognitive status of middle-aged individuals and independent of NfL levels, and may become a valuable biomarker of frontal lobe-associated cognitive function.