Temperature-dependent frequency shifts in collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate

Hualin Shi, Wei-Mou Zheng
1999 Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics  
By including the contribution of the thermal cloud to the Lagrangian of the condensate of a Bose gas, we extend the time-dependent variational method at zero temperature to study temperature-dependent low collective excitation modes. A Gaussian trial wave function of the condensate and a static distribution density of the thermal cloud are used, and analytical expressions for temperature-dependent excitation frequencies obtained. Theoretical results are compared with measurements in the JILA and MIT experiments.
doi:10.1103/physreva.59.1562 fatcat:yd6ciuedvbeonl3g3ly4nkngti