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Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in cell invasion and cancer metastasis. In this study, we showed that cholic acid (CA), a major primary bile acid, can induce MMP-9 expression in colon cancer HT29 and SW620 cells. CA increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and also activated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK. Specific inhibitors and mutagenesis studies showed that ERK1/2 and JNK functioned as upstream signals in the activation of AP-1, and p38 MAPKdoi:10.3390/ijms21103420 pmid:32408577 fatcat:bzfxrucldbbt7bmig5weg6665y