COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INSTITUTIONS OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY OF THE KINGDOMS OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY
Visnyk of the Lviv University
Today, public diplomacy is seen as one of the important tools for achieving the country's foreign policy goals. Many countries focus their efforts on bringing their own agenda, building an attractive image, raising their awareness and seeking to be heard and perceived by foreign audiences abroad. Public diplomacy functions as a reverse mechanism, the essence of which is not only to study or inform foreign audiences, but also to receive feedback. This type of non-traditional diplomacy includes
... ltural, educational, sports, media, scientific and other projects aimed at interacting not only with foreign elites, but also with society as a whole. The urgency of this topic is due to the dynamic development of the modern system of international relations against the background of intensifying globalization processes. The implementation of this trend in the foreign policy of both the world's leading powers and small countries is gaining momentum and becoming common practice. The public diplomacy of the Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway has become a shining example of success among the Nordic countries, which have managed to occupy their niche in this field of nontraditional diplomacy. Thus, the article examines the peculiarities of the functioning of the institutions of public diplomacy of the Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway. In particular, a comparative analysis of models of public diplomacy of selected countries. Also, common and different strengths and weaknesses in the functioning of the institutions of public diplomacy of the Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway were identified. It is concluded that the common features of both countries are the presence of clearly defined principles and strategies for the development of public diplomacy in specialized documents or in the overall foreign policy strategy as a whole. However, the Kingdom of Norway lacks the longevity of cultural institutions such as the Swedish Institute, while a number of agencies, foundations and departments with narrow functions have been identified. It has been established that the Kingdom of Norway takes a centralized corporate approach to the functioning of public diplomacy, and their model has a rather fragmented structure. Regarding the formation of a positive image of both countries, the common features are "eco-friendly" direction, tourism, respect for democratic values and freedoms, priority in the development of education, science and culture, intensive implementation of Web 2.0 Internet technologies as well as peacebuilding support. However, in some places the image of Norway loses to the image of Sweden in the absence of flagship projects or brands that can have a significant impact or evoke emotions in people abroad.