Deep Learning for Predicting Dynamic Uncertain Opinions in Network Data
Subjective Logic (SL) is one of well-known belief models that can explicitly deal with uncertain opinions and infer unknown opinions based on a rich set of operators of fusing multiple opinions. Due to high simplicity and applicability, SL has been substantially applied in a variety of decision making in the area of cybersecurity, opinion models, trust models, and/or social network analysis. However, SL and its variants have exposed limitations in predicting uncertain opinions in real-world
... mic network data mainly in three-fold: (1) a lack of scalability to deal with a large-scale network; (2) limited capability to handle heterogeneous topological and temporal dependencies among node-level opinions; and (3) a high sensitivity with conflicting evidence that may generate counterintuitive opinions derived from the evidence. In this work, we proposed a novel deep learning (DL)-based dynamic opinion inference model while node-level opinions are still formalized based on SL meaning that an opinion has a dimension of uncertainty in addition to belief and disbelief in a binomial opinion (i.e., agree or disagree). The proposed DL-based dynamic opinion inference model overcomes the above three limitations by integrating the following techniques: (1) state-of-the-art DL techniques, such as the Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) and the Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) for modeling the topological and temporal heterogeneous dependency information of a given dynamic network; (2) modeling conflicting opinions based on robust statistics; and (3) a highly scalable inference algorithm to predict dynamic, uncertain opinions in a linear computation time. We validated the outperformance of our proposed DL-based algorithm (i.e., GCN-GRU-opinion model) via extensive comparative performance analysis based on four real-world datasets.