Impact of Attrition, Intercellular Shear in Dry Eye Disease: When Cells are Challenged and Neurons are Triggered

Gysbert-Botho van Setten
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
The mechanical component in the pathophysiology of dry eye disease (DED) deserves attention as an important factor. The lubrication deficit induced impaired mechano-transduction of lid pressure to the ocular surfaces may lead to the dysregulation of homeostasis in the epithelium, with sensations of pain and secondary inflammation. Ocular pain is possibly the first sign of attrition and may occur in the absence of visible epithelial damage. Attrition is a process which involves the constant or
more » ... peated challenge of ocular surface tissues by mechanical shear forces; it is enhanced by the thinning of corneal epithelium in severe DED. As a highly dynamic process leading to pain and neurogenic inflammation, the identification of the impact of attrition and its potential pathogenic role could add a new perspective to the current more tear film-oriented models of ocular surface disease. Treatment of DED addressing lubrication deficiencies and inflammation should also consider the decrease of attrition in order to stimulate epithelial recovery and neural regeneration. The importance of hyaluronic acid, its molecular characteristics, the extracellular matrix and autoregulative mechanisms in this process is outlined. The identification of the attrition and recognition of its impact in dry eye pathophysiology could contribute to a better understanding of the disease and optimized treatment regimens.
doi:10.3390/ijms21124333 pmid:32570730 fatcat:jxzs2oz3obfv7kb62bma5nmeoi