Universal Features of Personality Traits From the Observer's Perspective: Data From 50 Cultures

Robert R. McCrae, Antonio Terracciano
2005 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology  
To test hypotheses about the universality of personality traits, college students in 50 cultures identified an adult or college-age man or woman whom they knew well and rated the 11,985 targets using the third-person version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Factor analyses within cultures showed that the normative American self-report structure was clearly replicated in most cultures, and was recognizable in all. Sex differences replicated earlier selfreport results, with the most
more » ... with the most pronounced differences in Western cultures. Cross-sectional age differences for three factors followed the pattern identified in self-reports, with moderate rates of change during college age and slower changes after age 40. With a few exceptions, these data support the hypothesis that features of personality traits are common to all human groups.
doi:10.1037/0022-3514.88.3.547 pmid:15740445 fatcat:5eeaorsi75g4fpxsxqt222nybq