The role of nomophobia and smartphone addiction in the lifestyle profiles of junior and senior high school students in the Philippines
Social Sciences & Humanities Open
Objectives: Nowadays, adolescents spend a lot of their time on smartphones. They find it difficult to go about their daily lives without using their smartphones. Losing a mobile phone or Wi-Fi connection can be distressing to anyone. This study examined the prevalence of nomophobia and smartphone addiction among Filipino adolescents and their association with adolescent lifestyle profiles (ALPs). Furthermore, gender and grade (i.e., junior vs. senior high school students) differences in
... ia, smartphone addiction, and ALPs as well as their differences in four nomophobia groups and among participants with and without smartphone addiction are determined. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, Pearson's correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, independent samples t -test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted. Using an online survey (i.e., created using Google Forms), data were collected from 1,447 (boys: n ¼ 580, girls: n ¼ 867) junior and senior high school students in the Philippines during the academic year 2018-2019. The Nomophobia Questionnaire, Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, and Adolescent Lifestyle Profile-Revised 2 were used to measure nomophobia, smartphone addiction, and lifestyle profiles, respectively. Results: Only 0.5% ( n ¼ 7) of the participants ( N ¼ 1,447) did not have nomophobia. In contrast, 12.4% ( n ¼ 180), 63.2% ( n ¼ 915), and 23.8% ( n ¼ 345) of them had mild, moderate, and severe nomophobia, respectively. Moreover, 62.6% (n ¼ 906) of the participants had smartphone addiction. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that nomophobia and smartphone addiction were positively intercorrelated (r ¼ .615; p < .01). Nomophobia was significantly related to overall ALPs ( r ¼ .060; p< .05) and some of its subdomains, namely, positive life perspective, interpersonal relationship, and spiritual health. It was not correlated with health responsibility, physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. Smartphone addiction was not significantly related to overall ALPs ( r ¼ -.020; p > .05). However, positive life perspective and interpersonal relationship were significantly and negatively related to smartphone addiction. Both nomophobia and smartphone addiction were significant predictors of ALPs. Furthermore, there were significant gender differences in nomophobia and ALPs but not in smartphone addiction. Moreover, there was no significant grade difference in nomophobia, smartphone addiction, and overall ALPs. There was a significant difference in smartphone addiction and overall ALPs between the four nomophobia groups. Finally, those with and without smartphone addiction differed significantly in overall nomophobia, but not in overall ALPs. Conclusions: The role of nomophobia and smartphone addiction in ALPs were evident within the following subdomains: positive life perspective, health responsibility, physical activity, interpersonal relationship, nutrition, stress management, and spiritual health. Therefore, rules governing smartphone use should be enforced at home and in schools. Further, preventive measures should be implemented to avoid the exacerbation of nomophobia and smartphone addiction and promote a healthy lifestyle among adolescents.