Nutritional Status in Liver Cirrhosis [chapter]

Kazuyuki Suzuki, Ryujin Endo, Akinobu Kato
2017 Liver Cirrhosis - Update and Current Challenges  
The metabolism of many nutritional elements (carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals) is gradually disturbed with progressive chronic liver diseases. In particular, protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is known as the most characteristic manifestation of liver cirrhosis (LC) and is closely related to its prognosis. Recently, while sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and strength or physical performance) has been discussed as an independent factor associated with prognosis in patients with
more » ... in patients with LC, obesity and insulin resistance in patients with LC also contribute to carcinogenesis in LC. Deiciencies of zinc and carnitine are involved in the malnutrition in LC and are associated with hyperammonemia, which is related to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Because the nutritional and metabolic disturbances in LC are fundamentally inluenced by many factors, such as the severity of liver damage, the existence of portal-systemic shunting, and inlammation, proper nutritional assessment is necessary for the nutritional management of patients with LC.
doi:10.5772/intechopen.68828 fatcat:bzvkx4v54ngafifwe46awuygge