Regulation of pigment organelle translocation. II. Participation of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase
Journal of Biological Chemistry
In intact goldfish xanthophores, the phosphorylation of a pigment organelle (carotenoid droplet) protein, p57, appears to play an important role in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)- or cAMP-induced pigment organelle dispersion while the dephosphorylation of this protein upon withdrawal of ACTH or cAMP is implicated in pigment aggregation. In this paper, we report the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of this protein in cell-free extracts of xanthophores as determined by the incorporation of 32P from
... ion of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP. As is the case in intact cells, p57 is the predominant protein phosphorylated in the presence of cAMP. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase which phosphorylates p57 is not bound to the isolated organelles but is found in the soluble portion of the cell extracts. Hence, the phosphorylation of p57 requires the carotenoid droplets bearing the substrate, soluble extract containing the kinase, cAMP (half-maximal activation at 0.5 microM), and Mg2+ (optimal at 5 mM or higher). The presence of protein phosphatase(s) in these extracts was shown indirectly by the stimulation of phosphorylation by fluoride. The phosphorylation of p57 does not appear to require a cell-specific kinase as soluble extracts of goldfish dermal nonpigment cells also phosphorylate p57 associated with isolated carotenoid droplets. Furthermore, using a constant amount of carotenoid droplets, a linear relationship was demonstrated between the rate of p57 phosphorylation and the amount of extract present in the assays. These results suggest that p57 is phosphorylated directly by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase and that the activity of this enzyme is important in regulating the intracellular movement of the pigment organelles of the xanthophore.