Genetic Affiliation of Pre-Hispanic and Contemporary Mayas through Maternal Linage Recommended Citation Genetic affiliation of pre-Hispanic and contemporary Mayas through maternal linage Running title: Maternal lineage in pre-Hispanic and contemporary Mayas

Mirna Ochoa-Lugo, Maria De Lourdez Muñoz, Gerardo Pérez-Ramírez, Kristine Beaty, Mauro López-Armenta, Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna Isabel, De Lourdez Muñoz, Maria Pérez-Ramírez, Gerardo Beaty, Kristine López-Armenta, Mauro Cervini-Silva (+30 others)
2016 unpublished
Maya civilization developed in Mesoamerica and encompassed all of the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, part of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador. This civilization persisted approximately three thousand years and was one of the most advanced of its time, possessing the only known full writing system, art, and sophisticated architecture, as well as mathematical and astronomical systems. This civilization reached the apex of its
more » ... he apex of its power and influence during the Preclassic period, from 2000 Before the Current Era (BCE)-250 Current Era (CE). Genetic variation in the pre-Hispanic Mayas from archaeological sites in the states of Yucatan, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, and Tabasco, Mexico, and their relationship with the contemporary communities in these regions have not been previously studied. Consequently, the principal aim of this study was to determine the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the pre-Hispanic Maya population and to assess the relationship of these individuals with contemporary Mesoamerican Maya and populations from Asia, Beringia, and North, Central, and South America. Our results revealed 1) interactions and gene flow between populations in the different archaeological sites assessed in this study; 2) the mtDNA haplogroup frequency in the pre-Hispanic Maya population (60.53%, 34.21%, and 5.26% for haplogroups A, C and D, respectively) was similar to most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, with haplogroup A exhibiting the highest frequency; 3) haplogroup B most likely arrived independently and mixed with populations carrying haplogroups A and C based on its absence in the pre-Hispanic Mexican Maya populations and low frequencies in most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, although this also may be due to drift; 3) Maya and Ciboneys sharing haplotype H10 belonged to haplogroup C1 and haplotype H4 of haplogroup D suggesting shared regional haplotypes indicating a shared genetic ancestry suggesting regional interaction between populations in the Circum-Caribbean region than previously demonstrated; 4) haplotype sharing between the pre-Hispanic Maya and the indigenous populations from Asia, the Aleutian islands, and North,
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