Review—Review on the Progress in Electrochemical Detection of Morphine Based on Different Modified Electrodes

Pinky Abraham, Renjini S, Poornima Vijayan, Nisha V, Krishna Sreevalsan, V. Anithakumary
2020 Journal of the Electrochemical Society  
Morphine is a powerful opioid pain medication and commonly used narcotic pain killer and is toxic during overdose or when abused. Compared to conventional analytical techniques, the electroanalytical method has significant advantages viz. low cost, simplicity, ease of operation and facile miniaturization. In the present paper different approaches based on various modifications adopted for effective electrochemical sensing of morphine are reviewed in a comprehensive way. Among different modified
more » ... electrodes available for the detection of morphine, carbon based materials-CNTs and graphene-display effective quantification and are attractive in terms of cost compared to noble metals. In addition, the performance of reported sensors in terms of their including detection range (LDR), limit of detection (LOD) and technique used are presented. The present review compares various electroanalytical techniques adopted for the determination of morphine. Several analytical methods like chemiluminescense, 20 surface plasmon resonance, 21 immuochromatography assay 22 gas chromatography, 23 HPLC with UV, 24 radioimmunoassay, 25,26 HPLC with amperometry, 27 resonance light scattering, 28 liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection 29 thin layer chromatography 30 resonance scattering, 31 time resolved chemiluminescence, 32 spectrometry, 33 immunoassay 34 are being employed for the detection of morphine. Although these methods can offer good selectivity, they often require advanced technical expertize, complex pretreatment steps, time consuming, and are expensive. Thus an alternative strategy for the detection of morphine is necessary. Unlike surface plasma resonance, chromatographic techniques, electrochemical sensors can z
doi:10.1149/1945-7111/ab6cf6 fatcat:xmckbgkf25hrdkehyzwh3xcx74