Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Atherosclerosis Development and Treatment

Anastasia V. Poznyak, Andrey V. Grechko, Varvara A. Orekhova, Yegor S. Chegodaev, Wei-Kai Wu, Alexander N. Orekhov
2020 Biology  
Atherosclerosis can be regarded as chronic inflammatory disease affecting the arterial wall. Despite the recent progress in studying the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, some of the pathogenic mechanisms remain to be fully understood. Among these mechanisms is oxidative stress, which is closely linked to foam cells formation and other key events in atherosclerosis development. Two groups of enzymes are involved in the emergence of oxidative stress: Pro-oxidant (including NADPH oxidases,
more » ... oxidases, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and antioxidant (such as superoxide dismutase, catalases, and thioredoxins). Pro-oxidant enzymes in normal conditions produce moderate concentrations of reactive oxidant species that play an important role in cell functioning and can be fully utilized by antioxidant enzymes. Under pathological conditions, activities of both pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes can be modified by numerous factors that can be relevant for developing novel therapies. Recent studies have explored potential therapeutic properties of antioxidant molecules that are capable to eliminate oxidative damage. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Other perspective approach is to inhibit the activity of pro-oxidant enzymes and thus to slow down the progression of atherosclerosis. In this review we summarized the current knowledge on oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and potential antioxidant approaches. We discuss several important antioxidant molecules of plant origin that appear to be promising for treatment of atherosclerosis.
doi:10.3390/biology9030060 pmid:32245238 fatcat:d7rf4a3smjeibg2gn763msfoyq