Effect of Intravenous Infusion of Exenatide (Synthetic Exendin-4) on Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion and Counterregulation During Hypoglycemia
This study assessed whether glucose-dependent insulin secretion and overall counterregulatory response are preserved during hypoglycemia in the presence of exenatide. Twelve healthy fasted volunteers were randomized in a triple-blind crossover study to receive either intravenous exenatide (0.066 pmol ⅐ kg ؊1 ⅐ min ؊1 ) or placebo during a 270-min stepwise hyperinsulinemichypoglycemic clamp (insulin infusion 0.8 mU ⅐ kg ؊1 ⅐ min ؊1 ). Plasma glucose was clamped sequentially at 5.0 (0 -120 min),
... .0 (120 -180 min), 3.2 (180 -240 min), and 2.7 mmol/l (240 -270 min). At 270 min, insulin infusion was terminated and plasma glucose increased to ϳ3.2 mmol/l. The time to achieve plasma glucose >4 mmol/l thereafter was recorded. Insulin secretory rates (ISRs) and counterregulatory hormones were measured throughout. Glucose profiles were superimposable between the exenatide and placebo arms. In the presence of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, ISRs in the exenatide arm were ϳ3.5-fold higher than in the placebo arm (353 ؎ 29 vs. 100 ؎ 29 pmol/min [least-square means ؎ SE]). However, ISRs declined similarly and rapidly at all hypoglycemic steps (<4 mmol/l) in both groups. Glucagon was suppressed in the exenatide arm during euglycemia and higher than placebo during hypoglycemia. Plasma glucose recovery time was equivalent for both treatments. The areas under the concentration-time curve from 270 to 360 min for cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and growth hormone were similar between treatment arms. There were no differences in adverse events. In the presence of exenatide, there was a preserved, glucose-dependent insulin secretory response and counterregulatory response during hypoglycemia. Diabetes . O.S. holds stock in Amylin. FFA, free fatty acid; GLP, glucagon-like peptide; ISR, insulin secretory rate.