Involvement of Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Macular Edema
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a critical complication of diabetic retinopathy, a condition that arises from the breakdown of the blood–retinal barrier and the consequent increase in vascular permeability. Over the years, attempts have been made to treat DME by various approaches, including laser photocoagulation, steroid triamcinolone acetonide, and vitrectomy. However, treatment was unsatisfactory until research identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a factor in the
... tor in the pathogenesis of DME. Intraocular anti-VEGF agents show good efficacy in DME. Nevertheless, in some patients the condition recurs or becomes resistant to treatment, suggesting that other factors may be involved. Because inflammation and retinal hypoxia are seen in DME, research has examined the potential role of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. In this review, we provide an overview of this research and describe feedback mechanisms that may represent a target for novel treatments.