Real-time Control for Power Cost Efficient Deep Learning Processing with Renewable Generation

Dong-Ki Kang, Chan-Hyun Youn
2019 IEEE Access  
The explosive increase in deep learning (DL) deployment has led GPU power usage to become a major factor in operational cost of modern HPC clusters. The complex mixture of DL processing, fluctuated renewable generation, and dynamic electricity price impedes the elaborate GPU power control, so as to lead an undesirable cost. However, most previous studies have been concerned only with the design of power management method using DL, and have not care about the cost caused by GPU power consumption
more » ... for DL processing itself. This paper, as the opposite direction of these trends, proposes a real-time power controller called DeepPow-CTR for cost efficient DL processing in GPU based clusters. We design the GPU frequency scaling algorithm based on model predictive control (MPC), to delicately tune the DL power consumption in response to dynamic renewable generation and electricity price. At the same time, we avoid the unacceptable DL performance degradation by regulating memory-access / feed-forward / back-propagation (MFB) time per each minibatch data in deep neural network (DNN) model training. To solve the designed nonlinear MPC problem rapidly and accurately, we apply the damped Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) based sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method to our DeepPow-CTR. Our experimental results on lab-scale testbed using real trace data of renewable generation and electricity price, demonstrate that the proposed DeepPow-CTR has superiority and practicality in terms of DL processing power cost and performance, compared to existing methods. INDEX TERMS Artificial intelligence, power engineering computing, renewable energy sources, frequency control, nonlinear control systems, mathematical programming. The associate editor coordinating the review of this article and approving it for publication was Yin Zhang. wide research area such as data center management [6]-[8], wireless network management [9]-[14], and building comfort management [15], [16]. Recently, the power management is one of major industrial problems for which many researchers attempt to actively deploy the DL method. Lee et al. [17] proposed a convolutional neural network (CNN) based deep power control (DPC) scheme to maximize the energy cost efficieny of wireless communication systems (WCSs). Their proposed method is able to determine the appropriate amount of power transmission for WCS in real-time, based on the offline training of CNN model. Yan and Xu [18] proposed an intelligent load frequency control (LFC) to achieve the balancing between the power generation and demands. Instead of using a vanilla reinforcement learning (RL), they designed a data-driven deep reinforcement learning (DRL) so as to enable control actions in continous domain. Li et al. [7] also
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2935389 fatcat:e2zwghtkujae5m2oxevyhyuima