Perceptual User Interfaces [chapter]

Matthew Turk
2001 Frontiers of Human-Centered Computing, Online Communities and Virtual Environments  
T here is no Moore's Law for user interfaces. Human-computer interaction has not changed fundamentally for nearly two decades. Most users interact with computers by typing, pointing, and clicking. The majority of work in human-computer interfaces (HCI) in recent decades has been aimed at creating graphical user interfaces JEAN-FRANCOIS PODEVIN (GUIs) that give users direct control and perdictability. These properties provide the user a clear model of what commands and action are possible and
more » ... t their affects will be; they allow users to have a sense of accomplishment and responsibility about their interactions with computer applications. Although these endeavors have been very successful, and the WIMP (windows, icons, menus, pointer) paradigm has served to provide a stable and global face to computing, it is clear this paradigm will not scale to match the myriad form factors and uses of computers in the future. Computing devices are becoming smaller and ubiquitous, and interaction with them is becoming more and more pervasive in our daily lives. At the same time, large-scale displays are becoming more common, and we are beginning to see a convergence between computers and television. In all cases, the need arises for more general and intuitive ways of interacting with the technology. Pointing, clicking, and typing-though still appropriate for many uses of computers in the foreseeable future-will not be how most people interact with the majority of computing devices for long. What we need are interaction techniques well matched with how people will use computers. From small, mobile devices carried or worn to powerful devices embedded in homes, businesses, and automobiles-one size does not fit all. Is there a paradigm that captures the essence of such diverse future HCI requirements? We believe there is, and it is grounded in how people interact with each other and with the real world. This is the essence of perceptual user interfaces (PUIs). PUIs are characterized by interaction techniques that combine an understanding of natural human capabilities (particularly communication, motor, cognitive, and perceptual skills) with computer I/O devices and machine perception and reasoning. They seek to make the user interface more natural and compelling by taking advantage of the ways in which people naturally interact with each other and with the world-both verbally and nonverbally. Devices and sensors should be transparent and passive if possible, and machines should perceive relevant human communication channels as well as generate output that is naturally understood. This is expected to require integration at multiple levels of technologies such as speech and sound recognition and generation, computer vision, graphical animation and visualization, language understanding, touch-based
doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-0259-5_4 fatcat:gokhtahogrb3hp36wbmqovmoie