Food Supply Chains as Cyber-Physical Systems: a Path for More Sustainable Personalized Nutrition
Food Engineering Reviews
Current food system evolved in a great degree because of the development of processing and food engineering technologies: people learned to bake bread long before the advent of agriculture; salting and smoking supported nomad lifestyles; canning allowed for longer military marches; etc. Food processing technologies went through evolution and significant optimization and currently rely on minor fraction of energy comparing with initial prototypes. Emerging processing technologies (high-pressure,
... pulsed electric fields, ohmic heating, ultrasound) and novel food systems (cultured biomass, 3-D bioprinting, cyber-physical chains) try to challenge the existing chains by developing potentially more nutritious and sustainable food solutions. However, new food systems rely on low technology readiness levels and estimation of their potential future benefits or drawbacks is a complex task mostly due to the lack of integrated data. The research is aimed for the development of conceptual guidelines of food production system structuring as cyber-physical systems. The study indicates that cyber-physical nature of modern food is a key for the engineering of more nutritious and sustainable paths for novel food systems. Implementation of machine learning methods for the collection, integration, and analysis of data associated with biomass production and processing on different levels from molecular to global, leads to the precise analysis of food systems and estimation of upscaling benefits, as well as possible negative rebound effects associated with societal attitude. Moreover, such data-integrated assessment systems allow transparency of chains, integration of nutritional and environmental properties, and construction of personalized nutrition technologies.