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Whencountries adopt educational reforms, teachers adapt them to local conditions. This paper uses the case of phonics instruction in India to examine how an unfamiliar instructional method is understood and implemented. The data is based on classroom observations and interactions with multimedia scriptwriters. The data show that components of the program are understood if they address a recognized classroom problem and fit familiar routines. However, since there is a fundamental mismatchdoi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.865 fatcat:2wnsey7a6rbahk2pxajqjnzb64