Is arterial stiffness ready for daily clinical practice?
Journal of Hypertension
Arterial stiffness is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors such as age , hypertension , smoking , hypercholesterolemia [4,5], diabetes types I  and II , insulin resistance  and hyperhomocysteinemia  . The majority of these data come from observational cross-sectional studies. Although these type of studies can only show an association between arterial stiffness and the cardiovascular risk factor, the cardiovascular risk factor is likely to raise arterial
... ise arterial stiffness. However, the likelihood of a causal relation is not always so clear. In this issue of the journal, Mattace-Raso et al.  describe an association between orthostatic hypotension and arterial stiffness. The question is whether orthostatic hypotension may be due to arterial stiffness or whether the association is a result of a common disease that leads to increased arterial stiffness and to autonomic nervous dysfunction. Although large artery stiffness has been associated with decreased baroreceptor activity  and autonomic dysfunction , it is not clear whether this is due to the mechanical properties of the vascular wall, mediating the transfer of transmural pressure, or to afferent and/or efferent autonomic dysfunction. Recently, new devices have been proposed to measure arterial stiffness based on pulse wave velocity. Some devices make use of measurements at upper and lower limbs and/or take height or seated height as the travel distance. They result in high pulse wave velocities (up to