THE SYNTACTIC UNIT (FROM DEFINITION TO MODELLING)
Valeria Koroliova, Iryna Popova
Journal "Ukrainian sense"
Background. In the article the vital questions of syntax of the present-day Ukrainian language are touched, syntax represents the top stratum of language organization and in itscompetence there are its own speech chains as the communicative creations that guarantee a process of communication. In spite of the diversity of ways of approach to the study of language phenomena, the profound and thorough description of universal notions and categories remains the most important in its theory. We
... ve that at a level of syntax the language universals includesuch basic categories as the syntactic unit, the syntactic connection and the syntactic model thatcontinue to remain within eyesight of the linguists despite the numerous investigations. Purpose.The aim of the present scientific research is to make an attempt of the carefulinterpretation of one of the basic categories, namely the syntactic unit, in context of the system approach to the comprehension of the syntactic level of language as a base for the different aspects – formal and syntactic, semantic and syntactic, functional and communicative.Methods. The process of substantiation of the categorial status of the syntactic unit involvesthe fundamental theoretical and methodological principles in the research of present-day Ukrainianand general linguistics, in particular the point of the systematic character of the language andspeech phenomena. The following methods of investigation – observation, description, analysis of lexical definitions, generalization, comparison, systematization, transformation and modelling –have become the main methodological substratum in opening the essence of the syntactic unit (itsdefinition, status, typology, process of modelling).Results. In the article it is given a review of achievements from the previous period of the linguistic studies in treating such a syntactic construct as a unit. In context of the terminologicalsystem of present-day modern syntax it is analysed the existent determinations of the syntactic unitas one of the basic syntactic notions, it is proposed the proper definition of the syntactic unitadjusted for the structural and functional peculiarities. Thus, the syntactic unit is defined as thespeech chain that is grammatically regulated and marked in a functioned way, is represented by a free meaningful sequence of word forms, even by a separate word form. This determination gives anopportunity to qualify any speech structure with a plane of expression (the grammatical means of connection) and a plane of content (the information of semantic character or character marked in afunctioned way) as the syntactic unit. The character of the grammatical ordering of the speech chains and their functions, thedegree of linguistic significance are different both in a plane of their content and in a plane of theirexpression, therefore it appears the necessity of gradation of the syntactic units, first and foremost,in the field of significance of hierarchical relations between them. It is distinguished four subsets of the plural number of the syntactic units in the Ukrainian language: basic, main, derivative and peripheral (analytical, analytical and search). Two units are basic (the peculiar language universals) – a word as an elementary, minimal lexical component of the speech chain and astructure as a definite sequence of words that also represents a kind of speech chain. The mostimportant link in the system of the syntactic units is represented as the basic units, the formation ofwhich is possible only with inclusion of the determined criteria, parameters: adequacy to thegrammatical order of the Ukrainian language; determination formed in a functioned way; generalization within limits of performed functions is maximally possible; completeness and selfsufficiency; connectedness with other units of the whole system. The suggested system of basic syntactic units includes six components: word form, expression, word combination, sentence, text, larger-then-the-sentence unity. The word form is interpreted as a structurally minimal syntactic unit that functions either as a communicatively significant component of a certain speech chain, or as an independent syntactic formation; a phrase as a combination of two or more full words (word forms) based only on a subjunctive correlation; a word combination as a combination of two or more full words on the basis of a conjunctive correlation or other semantic-grammatical relations, which is not actually a subjunctive correlation; a sentence as a certain predicative syntactic formation consisting of a word (or its analogue) or a syntactically connected group of words (or their analogues) and performing a communicative function; the text as a communicatively significant, formally and semantically completed speech formation, built with a certain pragmatic purpose; larger-then-the-sentence as a combination of two or more sentences, which are connected by formal linguistic means of lexical or grammatical nature and united by a common theme, a guide to the content of a separate act of communication. The main syntactic units are defined as conceptual categories. Derivative units appear due to the derivational detailing of the main syntactic units. They are different subclasses within a certain syntactic construction according to their functional and structural characteristics within a certain syntactic construction. Their system, which is related to operational categories, is flexible and constantly changing. The analytical units, built on the basis of categories of traditional formal-grammatical syntax, and analytical-search units, which are emphasized in the context of certain new, original as opposed to classical syntax concepts occupy a certain place in the system of syntactic units. The fact that syntactic units are a huge, even theoretically endless set of various constructions has led to the syntactic analysis of speech chains of a special and optimally effective method − the method of linguistic modeling. In this work, three notions of the concept of model are foregrounded: structural or functional analogue of the studied phenomenon; a peculiar metalanguage or the system of some rules within which the researcher studies the grammar of the language and states the results of their research; and a certain linguistic unit. The samples of models (graphical or analytical, or both) of all basic syntactic units are proposed by using two operations of image-mapping and its contamination.Discussion. The analyzed material once again shows that the specificity of the syntax is clearly identified both in terms of its expression and in terms of its content. The syntactic unit as one of the main, fundamental categories of syntax is clearly defined in the work, the typology of these constructs is given and their models are offered. The object of further research may be derived units, in particular their detailing, analytical and search units due to the fact that new syntactic theories and approaches to the analysis of speech chains, modelling of derived units of the Ukrainian language appear.