Removal of Cadmium and Lead from Contaminated Soils Using Sophorolipids from Fermentation Culture of Starmerella bombicola CGMCC 1576 Fermentation
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Soil contaminated with Cd and Pb has caused sharp decrease of cultivatable soil and has been attracting increasing attention. Biosurfactants are efficient in solving the problem. However, little information is available about the influence of sophorolipids (SLs) on the remediation of Cd- or Pb-contaminated soil. The sophorolipids produced by Starmerella bombicola CGMCC 1576 were used to study the effects of Cd and Pb removal in batch soil washing from artificially contaminated soil. The removal
... d soil. The removal efficiency of crude total SLs was better than both distilled water and synthetic surfactants. Furthermore, 83.6% of Cd and 44.8% of Pb were removed by 8% crude acidic SLs. Acidic SLs with high water solubility were more effective than lactonic SLs in enhancing remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils. The complexation of Cd with the free carboxyl group of the acidic SLs was observed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy study, and this complexation was effective in heavy metal removal from the soil. The fermentation broth of S. bombicola, without further preparation, removed 95% of Cd and 52% of Pb. These results suggested that SLs produced by S. bombicola could function as potential bioremediation agents for heavy metal-contaminated soil.