Measuring Coastal Subsidence after Recent Earthquakes in Chile Central Using SAR Interferometry and GNSS Data

Felipe Orellana, Joaquín Hormazábal, Gonzalo Montalva, Marcos Moreno
2022 Remote Sensing  
Coastal areas concentrate a large portion of the country's population around urban areas, which in subduction zones commonly are affected by drastic tectonic processes, such as the damage earthquakes have registered in recent decades. The seismic cycle of large earthquakes primarily controls changes in the coastal surface level in these zones. Therefore, quantifying temporal and spatial variations in land level after recent earthquakes is essential to understand shoreline variations better, and
more » ... to assess their impacts on coastal urban areas. Here, we measure the coastal subsidence in central Chile using a multi-temporal differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (MT-InSAR). This geographic zone corresponds to the northern limit of the 2010 Maule earthquake (Mw 8.8) rupture, an area affected by an aftershock of magnitude Mw 6.8 in 2019. The study is based on the exploitation of big data from SAR images of Sentinel-1 for comparison with data from continuous GNSS stations. We analyzed a coastline of ~300 km by SAR interferometry that provided high-resolution ground motion rates from between 2018 and 2021. Our results showed a wide range of subsidence rates at different scales, of analyses on a regional scale, and identified the area of subsidence on an urban scale. We identified an anomalous zone of subsidence of ~50 km, with a displacement <−20 mm/year. We discuss these results in the context of the impact of recent earthquakes and analyze the consequences of coastal subsidence. Our results allow us to identify stability in urban areas and quantify the vertical movement of the coast along the entire seismic cycle, in addition to the vertical movement of coast lands. Our results have implications for the planning of coastal infrastructure along subduction coasts in Chile.
doi:10.3390/rs14071611 fatcat:efskn7imczcjlgx3bs3j63jboi