Small systems and regulator dependence in relativistic hydrodynamics

Michał Spaliński
2016 Physical Review D  
Consistent theories of hydrodynamics necessarily include nonhydrodynamic modes, which can be viewed as a regulator necessary to ensure causality. Under many circumstances the choice of regulator is not relevant, but this is not always the case. In particular, for sufficiently small systems (such as those arising in pA or pp collisions) such dependence may be inevitable. We address this issue in the context of the modern version of Müller-Israel-Stewart theory of relativistic hydrodynamics. In
more » ... is case, by demanding that the nonhydrodynamic modes be subdominant, we find that regulator dependence becomes inevitable only for multiplicities dN/dY of the order of a few. This conclusion supports earlier studies based on hydrodynamic simulations of small systems, at the same time providing a simple physical picture of how hydrodynamics can be reliable even in such seemingly extreme conditions.
doi:10.1103/physrevd.94.085002 fatcat:djklzrywhbetzh7cp5eajlza3m