Nonintrusive Load-Shed Verification

David Bergman, Dong Jin, Joshua Juen, Naoki Tanaka, Carl Gunter, Andrew Wright
2011 IEEE pervasive computing  
D emand response, a cornerstone of smart-grid technology, lets consumers participate directly in energy markets by limiting their energy use during periods of emergency or peak demand. In a direct-control demand-response approach, an electricity service provider (ESP) offers consumers discounts or other incentives if they agree to let the ESP send load-shed instructions (LSIs) to specified appliances. For instance, an ESP might adjust the set points on an air conditioner's thermostat. Direct
more » ... trol can save consumers money and provide ESPs with valuable tools for controlling energy generation costs and grid stability. But these benefits depend on the LSIs producing the expected response from appliances. L oad-shed verification (LSV) can improve reliability and eliminate freeloaders who accept incentives without implementing direct controls. However, this generates many trust challenges because the consumer owns and operates the appliance and because effective demand response depends on the integrity of the appliances' responses to LSIs. To address these challenges, we've implemented an algorithm based on a nonintrusive load monitoring (NILM) learning phase that runs during an initialization period at the ESP. The result is a distributed NILM algorithma nonintrusive load-shed verification (NILSV) algorithm deployed on the residential meter. We built a prototype and conducted experiments in a residence to illustrate NILSV's promise along with some of its challenges. LSV Challenges Developing a trust model for direct control of residential consumer appliances is a wellrecognized challenge. 1,2 Designing and deploying approaches wherein the ESP has a secure, remote, and tamper-resistant verification agent in each appliance will be difficult owing to the appliances' diversity. To fully address the trust issue, a solution must secure not only the communications path and the load controller hosting the trusted agent but also the load's control connections. Securing these connections for the many consumer appliances to which control must be retrofit-such as HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems, water heaters, and pool pumps-is largely impractical. We can simplify this problem by using unidirectional authentication of control messages from the ESP to the appliance. This method enables several communication options, including public webpage messages (such as RSS feeds), An approach in which residential power meters monitor electricity use and analyze load enables electricity service providers to verify that registered appliances conform to their load-shed instructions.
doi:10.1109/mprv.2010.71 fatcat:te72pvxzwvd7zagugmmek7mmpu