Domestic greywater flows and pollutant loads: a neighbourhood study within a university campus in Ghana: Characteristics of greywater in a residential neighbourhood

Bismark Dwumfour-Asare, Kwabena B. Nyarko, Helen M.K. Essandoh, Esi Awuah
2020 Scientific African  
Domestic greywater management is a challenge and remains the most neglected sanitation component in Ghana. Meanwhile, data on greywater (quantity and quality) is very limited. This paper aimed to generate relevant information on greywater using a residential neighbourhood within a university campus in Kumasi city. Data was generated from five households of 24 inhabitants using interviews, greywater quantification by volumetric flow measurement, and laboratory analyses. Greywater flows collected
more » ... ter flows collected from bathrooms, kitchen, laundry and sink sources were between 250 and 260 l/h/d (52 -54 l/c/d). Major contaminants like turbidity (270 NTU), TSS (180 -190 mg/L), BOD 5 (320 -350 mg/L), COD (690 -740 mg/L), TP (3 mg/L), NH 3 -N/NH 4 + (6 -12 mg/L), and Hg & Pb (0.3 -0.8 mg/L) failed the regulatory discharge limits. Anionic surfactants (6 -7 mg-LAS/L), SO 4 2-(13 -15 mg/L), sodium absorption ratio (SAR, 0.6 (meq/l) ½ ) and biodegradability ratio (BOD 5 /COD, 0.5) were also determined. Specific pollutant loads were comparable to available literature, e.g. BOD 5 & COD were about 18 g/c/d and 38 g/c/d respectively. The untreated greywater flows are low, loaded with pollutants and considered unsafe for open discharge into the environment without treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00489 fatcat:toai4zymprhlrhx2o2alvf64um