Investigating the effector suite profile of Australian Fusarium oxysporum isolates from agricultural and natural ecosystems
© 2020 The Authors. Plant Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Plant Pathology Pathogenic and putatively nonpathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum are ubiquitously present in soils. Pathogenic isolates designated as formae speciales are very host specific. The genes that determine host-specific pathogenicity may be expected to be similar between strains within a forma specialis. Three different pathways were used for mining putative effectors from 85
... ssembled genome sequences representing isolates from the agricultural and natural ecosystems. A total of 436 putative effectors were identified, of which 115 were present in all the isolates. The presence–absence phylogeny showed some clustering of isolates based on the ecosystems, while some clustered with isolates from different ecosystems. Isolates from the agricultural and natural ecosystems shared 358 putative effectors. Agricultural isolates had 78 unique putative effectors, while isolates from the natural ecosystems had no unique effectors. Isolates from the natural ecosystems had effectors that have previously been confirmed with virulence functions in other filamentous fungi, suggesting that the natural ecosystems may be acting as a reservoir for pathogenic isolates awaiting compatible hosts. They also possessed putative effectors with domains involved in polysaccharide degradation. The putative effectors in the natural ecosystem isolates may be important for both parasitic and ecological fitness. Further analysis of the three characterized ff. sp.—lycopersici, niveum, and pisi—revealed high conservation in the pathogenicity mechanism in F. oxysporum. However, each strain had unique putative effectors, which may be responsible for host specificity.