Accelerated resolution of inflammation underlies sex differences in inflammatory responses in humans

Krishnaraj S. Rathod, Vikas Kapil, Shanti Velmurugan, Rayomand S. Khambata, Umme Siddique, Saima Khan, Sven Van Eijl, Lorna C. Gee, Jascharanpreet Bansal, Kavi Pitrola, Christopher Shaw, Fulvio D'Acquisto (+4 others)
2016 Journal of Clinical Investigation  
BACKGROUND. Cardiovascular disease occurs at lower incidence in premenopausal females compared with age-matched males. This variation may be linked to sex differences in inflammation. We prospectively investigated whether inflammation and components of the inflammatory response are altered in females compared with males. METHODS. We performed 2 clinical studies in healthy volunteers. In 12 men and 12 women, we assessed systemic inflammatory markers and vascular function using brachial artery
more » ... w-mediated dilation (FMD). In a further 8 volunteers of each sex, we assessed FMD response to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) at baseline and at 8 hours and 32 hours after typhoid vaccine. In a separate study in 16 men and 16 women, we measured inflammatory exudate mediators and cellular recruitment in cantharidin-induced skin blisters at 24 and 72 hours. RESULTS. Typhoid vaccine induced mild systemic inflammation at 8 hours, reflected by increased white cell count in both sexes. Although neutrophil numbers at baseline and 8 hours were greater in females, the neutrophils were less activated. Systemic inflammation caused a decrease in FMD in males, but an increase in females, at 8 hours. In contrast, GTN response was not altered in either sex after [...] Clinical Medicine Vascular biology
doi:10.1172/jci89429 pmid:27893465 pmcid:PMC5199722 fatcat:tnppvmqkpjdrxjh3g2lsrpk3xy