Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever serosurvey in humans for identifying high-risk populations and high-risk areas in the endemic state of Gujarat, India
BMC Infectious Diseases
Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of humans transmitted by Hyalomma ticks. Earlier studies have shown CCHF seroprevalence in livestock throughout India, yet sporadic outbreaks have been recorded mostly from the Gujarat state of India since 2011. Occupational vulnerability to CCHF for animal handlers, veterinarians, abattoir workers, and healthcare workers has been documented. The current study was planned to determine the seroprevalence of CCHF with
... n intention to identify the high -risk population and high -risk areas from Gujarat state, India. A total of 4978 human serum samples were collected from 33 districts of Gujarat during year 2015, 2016 and 2017. All the samples were screened for the presence of anti-CCHFV IgG using indigenously developed anti-CCHFV IgG ELISA. Univariate regression analysis was performed to recognize significant risk factors for CCHF seropositivity. Results: Twenty-five serum samples were found to be positive with an overall CCHF human seropositivity of 0.5% (95% CI 0.30-0.74%). Gender predisposition to CCHF prevalence was observed in males (OR: 2.80; p-value: 0.020). The risk for seropositivity increased sevenfold when a person was in contact or neighbor with a CCHF case (OR 7.02; p-value: < 0.0001). No significant difference in seropositivity was observed within different age groups. Veterinarians, healthcare workers, and control group were found to be seronegative for CCHF. Conclusions: In-spite of CCHF sporadic outbreaks reported in Gujarat, the seropositivity for CCHF in the state was low as compared to other endemic countries. Males, close contacts and neighbors were identified as a high-risk population for CCHF infection. To recognize the high-risk area, tick screening and animal serosurvey would be a wiser choice. The study also suggests circulation and under diagnoses of CCHFV in the naïve regions of Gujarat.