Impact of pre-existing cardiovascular disease on treatment patterns and survival outcomes in patients with lung cancer
Background Baseline cardiovascular disease (CVD) can impact the patterns of treatment and hence the outcomes of patients with lung cancer. This study aimed to characterize treatment trends and survival outcomes of patients with pre-existing CVD prior to their diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of patients with lung cancer diagnosed from 2004 to 2015 in a large Canadian province. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression
... ox regression models were constructed to determine the associations between CVD and treatment patterns, and its impact on overall (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS), respectively. A competing risk multistate model was developed to determine the excess mortality risk of patients with pre-existing CVD. Results A total of 20,689 patients with lung cancer were eligible for the current analysis. Men comprised 55%, and the median age at diagnosis was 70 years. One-third had at least one CVD, with the most common being congestive heart failure in 15% of patients. Pre-existing CVD was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48–0.58; P < .0001), radiotherapy (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.7–0.82; P < .0001), and surgery (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.44–0.7; P < .0001). Adjusting for measured confounders, the presence of pre-existing CVD predicted for inferior OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2; P < .0001) and CSS (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.1; P < .0001). However, in the competing risk multistate model that adjusted for baseline characteristics, prior CVD was associated with increased risk of non-cancer related death (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.33–1.64; P < 0.0001) but not cancer related death (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.94–1.03; P = 0.460). Conclusions Patients with lung cancer and pre-existing CVD are less likely to receive any modality of cancer treatment and are at a higher risk of non-cancer related deaths. As effective therapies such as immuno-oncology drugs are introduced, early cardio-oncology consultation may optimize management of lung cancer.