Ebola Fever and Advances in the Antiviral Therapies

Arun Kharat
2015 Journal of Human Virology & Retrovirology  
The virus The EVD, (Former-EHF) is a severe condition caused by a virus belonging to genus EBOLA virus, family Filoviridae and order Mononegavirales. The family Filoviridae is comprised of one genus, Filovirus, which contains two species, morphologically identical but serologically distinct: Marburg virus and Ebola virus. There are five EBOLA subtypes BDBV, ZEBOV, REBOV, SEBOV and Tai Forest Ebola virus (TAFV) which vary in pathogenicity, antigenicity and genomic constitution [27] . The
more » ... [27] . The identification and successful isolation of Marburg virus from the cave-dwelling fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus [28] . Ebola virus might endure as an asymptomatic or subclinical infection in the reservoir species, with little or no transmission, and might be intermittently provoked through a suitable stimulus. The stimulus might be stress, co-infection, change in food sources and pregnancy as displayed in vivo and in vitro investigations [29, 30] . Mammalian species, including NHP, vulnerable to infection are considered as the dead end hosts. Structure of EBOLA virus Ebola virus is an infectious, intracellular parasite. EBOVs have a threadlike shape, with a uniform diameter of 80 nm (Figure 1) [31]. The typical length of a virion with peak infectivity is about 1200 nm [32] . The virus genome consists of a single 19 kb strand Mini Review Abstract Ebola virus diseases (EVD) have been a global challenge for almost 40 years to scientists around the globe. It is a violent pathogen causing outbreaks in various parts of the world. Lately in 2014 the outbreak began in the republic of Guinea and spread to the republic of Liberia and the Sierra Leone. The 2014 West Africa EBOLA outbreak remains to be most dreadful in medical history with both the numbers and fatalities. Due to meager progression of efficient cultivation of Ebola virus, studies are limited and a wealth of information is not available. There is lack of approved drugs and vaccines and studies are limited to cell line and animal models. Biosafety concerns associated with containment are quite strong, posing limitations for studying Pathophysiology and virulence determinants. Despite limitations, incubation period, virus life cycle and a few molecular players involved in replication as well as the cytoskeleton are known. Prophylaxis measures are clearly indicated and practiced presently. Most of the research outcome has focused on preventing entry of virus either by the use of peptide base inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies. Antivirals that target RNA synthesis of Ebola virus, such as; small molecules and oligonucleotide derivatives are being developed. Alternative approaches of modifying symptoms rather than modifying the Ebola virus are also being considered. Prevention of RNA synthesis and blocking viral entry approaches are promising and summarized in this review.
doi:10.15406/jhvrv.2015.02.00057 fatcat:b52d5xj4cjaynofzdaacoxzqcm