The Impact of Human Lipoaspirate and Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Contact Culture on Breast Cancer Cells: Implications in Breast Reconstruction

Asim Ejaz, Katherine S. Yang, Kaushik P. Venkatesh, Somaiah Chinnapaka, Lauren E. Kokai, J. Peter Rubin
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Autologous fat transfer in the form of lipoaspirates for the reconstruction of the breast after breast cancer surgery is a commonly used procedure in plastic surgery. However, concerns regarding the oncologic risk of nutrient-rich fat tissue are widely debated. Previous studies have primarily focused on studying the interaction between adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and breast cancer cells. Methods: In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the paracrine- and contact-based
more » ... actions between lipoaspirates, ASCs and breast cancer cell lines. An inverted flask culture method was used to study the contact-based interaction between lipoaspirates and breast cancer cells, while GFP-expressing breast cancer cell lines were generated to study the cell–cell contact interaction with ASCs. Three different human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and BT-474, were studied. We analyzed the impact of these interactions on the proliferation, cell cycle and epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition of the breast cancer cells. Results: Our results revealed that both lipoaspirates and ASCs do not increase the proliferation rate of the breast cancer cells either through paracrine- or contact-dependent interactions. We observed that lipoaspirates selectively inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in contact co-culture, driven by the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein activity mediating cell cycle arrest. Additionally, ASCs inhibited MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation in cell–cell contact-dependent interactions. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed no significant increase in the EMT-related genes in breast cancer cells upon co-culture with ASCs. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study provides evidence of the non-oncogenic character of lipoaspirates and supports the safety of clinical fat grafting in breast reconstruction after oncological surgical procedures. In vivo studies in appropriate animal models and long-term post-operative clinical data from patients are essential to reach the final safety recommendations.
doi:10.3390/ijms21239171 pmid:33271950 fatcat:leotzjwg2zawvpf7wbtplp3epq