History and Future of Animal Welfare Science
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science
It is suggested that Mench give credit to the books that started the farm animal welfare movement- Harrison's (1964) Animal Machines and, arriving 1 year later, Huxley's (1965) Brave New Victuals. Huxley covered the use of chemicals on the land and "factory farming," a phrase coined by Harrison. They both discussed the rearing of animals indoors in huge numbers, closely confined, artificially lit, mechanically supplied with food, and treated with drugs and hormones to prevent disease and to
... disease and to speed growth. Are intensive methods necessarily cruel to animals? Are agricultural and industrial chemical residues contaminating the environment? What is the influence of new methods on the quality of food and what are the effects on the human organism? These were relevant questions back then, and almost 30 years later Harrison (1988 Harrison ( , 1993 wondered how much real progress has been made in answering them. IMPACT OF THE BRAMBELL COMMITTEE Within weeks of the publication of Animal Machines, the Brambell Committee (hereafter called the Committee) was set up and at the end of 1965, published its report and recommendations (Brambell, 1965) . In principle, the Committee disapproved of confinement of an animal that necessarily frustrates most of the major activities of his or her natural behavior (Brambell, 1965, paragraph 37). Also, for the first time, the expression of inherent behavior was stressed as an important component of welfare. Requests for reprints should be sent to Kenneth J.