Dynamics of Change in Chile: Explaining the Emergence of the 2006 Pingüino Movement

2013 Journal of Latin American Studies  
Focusing on the first large-scale protests in Chile after the reinstatement of democracy in , this article examines the emergence of the  Pingüino movement and shows how it succeeded in mobilising thousands of secondary school students against the neoliberal education model. It argues that several distinct but intertwined dimensions explain the movement's emergence. In , secondary school student groups merged to form a single organisation and adopted a horizontal and participatory
more » ... cision-making mechanism. At the same time, shortcomings in the education reforms of the s and s were revealed in terms of quality and equity, creating grievances that were fed into the movement's collective action frame. Finally, President Bachelet's rhetoric of a 'government of citizens' as an attempt to counteract the elitist nature of the Concertación's governance formula signified an opening of the structure of political opportunities that the students knew to take advantage of. Political and mobilisation opportunities are often created by cultural breaks and the surfacing of long dormant contradictions that reframe grievances and injustices and the possibilities of action.
doi:10.1017/s0022216x12001228 fatcat:dok5xp4j5ba4bg44pmbci7hi5u