Occurrence of Four Dengue Virus Serotypes and Chikungunya Virus in Kilombero, Tanzania during Dengue Outbreak in 2018 [article]

Beatrice Chipwaza, Robert David Sumaye, Maja Weisser, Winfrid Gingo, Nicholas Kim-Wah Yeo, Siti Naqiah Amrun, Fredros O Okumu, Lisa F.P. Ng
2020 medRxiv   pre-print
Dengue and Chikungunya viruses can cause large-scale epidemics with attack rates exceeding 80%. In Tanzania, there have been repeated outbreaks of dengue fever, the most recent one in 2018 and 2019 mostly reported in coastal areas. Despite its importance, there is limited knowledge on epidemiology of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) in Tanzania. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of DENV and CHIKV in Kilombero district, South-Eastern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional
more » ... study was conducted at Kibaoni Health Center, in Kilombero district, in the rainy and dry seasons of 2018. Febrile patients of any age and gender were enrolled. Blood samples were taken and screened for DENV and CHIKV viral RNA by real-time RT-PCR assays. Results: A total of 294 patients were recruited. Most were females (65%), and aged between 14─25 years (33%). DENV and CHIKV were detected in 29 (9.9%) and 3 (1.0%) patients, respectively. DENV was detected across all age groups and during both dry and rainy seasons. Although all four DENV serotypes were detected, serotypes 1 and 3 dominated and were present in 14 patients (42.4%) each. Additionally, the study showed DENV-1 and DENV-3 co-infections. Conclusion: This study reveals the co-circulation of all four DENV serotypes and CHIKV in Kilombero district. Importantly, we report the first occurrence of DENV-4 in Tanzania. Unlike previous DENV outbreaks caused by DENV-2, the 2018 outbreak was dominated by DENV-1 and DENV-3. Occurrence of all serotypes suggests the possibility of having severe clinical outcomes in future DENV epidemics in Tanzania.
doi:10.1101/2020.10.09.20209783 fatcat:hhkil4qvgrcfzmodoa56dqpeva