The Association of Caffeinated Beverages With Blood Pressure in Adolescents

Margaret R. Savoca, Conner D. Evans, Martha E. Wilson, Gregory A. Harshfield, David A. Ludwig
2004 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine  
Objective: To assess the association between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and blood pressure in African American and white adolescents. Design: This study was part of ongoing research examining stress-induced hemodynamic responses in adolescents. African American and white adolescents (n=159) selected foods and beverages for a 3-day sodiumcontrolled diet. Caffeine in these foods was used to stratify participants into 3 categories (0-50 mg/d, Ͼ50-100 mg/d, and Ͼ100 mg/d). Before menu
more » ... selection, blood pressure readings were obtained. Statistical Analysis: A general linear model (multiple regression with both categorical and continuous variables) was developed to assess the effects of race, category of caffeine intake, and interaction of race and caffeine intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure controlling for sex and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Results: The association between systolic blood pressure and caffeine category varied by race (P = .001). African Americans consuming more than 100 mg/d of caf-feine had higher systolic blood pressure readings than the groups consuming 0 to 50 mg/d (mean difference, 6.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3 to 9.7) or more than 50 to 100 mg/d (mean difference, 7.1 mm Hg; 95% CI, 3.4 to 10.7). The effect on diastolic blood pressure was less pronounced (P=.08). The diastolic blood pressure of the group consuming more than 100 mg/d was 3.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.41 to 7.0) higher than the group consuming more than 50 to 100 mg/d and was not statistically different from the group consuming 0 to 50 mg/d (mean difference, 2.4 mm Hg; 95% CI, −0.9 to 5.8). There was no evidence that the association between diastolic blood pressure and caffeine intake varied by race (P=.80).
doi:10.1001/archpedi.158.5.473 pmid:15123481 fatcat:m7tlo7j5jnbzhgh3ux2dw3eyce