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People reflexively see all change as implying inevitably increasing progress and complexity. This expected directionality is especially observed in students' views of living things, with some species envisioned as "higher" or more evolved. Students tend naturally to see all evolutionary change as adaptive, progressive, optimal, and teleological, with improvement achieved as needed or desired by organisms (if not as planned in advance). Following an extended outline of many interrelated ways,doi:10.1007/s12052-012-0417-y fatcat:ozfj3yetyjambdzif6v6qyv2iq