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We propose to produce entanglement by measuring the transmission of an optical cavity. Conditioned on the detection of a reflected photon, pairs of atoms in the cavity are prepared in maximally entangled states. The success probability depends on the cavity parameters, but high quality entangled states may be produced with a high probability even for cavities of moderate quality.doi:10.1103/physrevlett.90.127903 pmid:12688901 fatcat:yxoezgoaprhmzlo7xvj74ap63u