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The Arabian Peninsula is an arid zone with a hot desert climate and severe water scarcity. The low humidity, elevated ambient temperatures, and high evaporation rates in the region deemed conventional surface irrigation unsustainable. The IoT-based subsurface smart irrigation systems can be essentially developed for these regions to avoid surface evaporation losses. In this research, the sandy soil conditions of western Saudi Arabia have been considered in numerical simulations to evaluate thedoi:10.1155/2021/9012496 fatcat:d63e5u36avhw7hulkwchyykrs4