Proteasomal Protein Degradation: Adaptation of Cellular Proteolysis With Impact on Virus—and Cytokine-Mediated Damage of Heart Tissue During Myocarditis

Antje Beling, Meike Kespohl
2018 Frontiers in Immunology  
Viral myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle triggered by direct virus-induced cytolysis and immune response mechanisms with most severe consequences during early childhood. Acute and long-term manifestation of damaged heart tissue and disturbances of cardiac performance involve virus-triggered adverse activation of the immune response and both immunopathology, as well as, autoimmunity account for such immune-destructive processes. It is a matter of ongoing debate to what extent
more » ... linical virus infection contributes to the debilitating sequela of the acute disease. In this review, we conceptualize the many functions of the proteasome in viral myocarditis and discuss the adaptation of this multi-catalytic protease complex together with its implications on the course of disease. Inhibition of proteasome function is already highly relevant as a strategy in treating various malignancies. However, cardiotoxicity and immune-related adverse effects have proven significant hurdles, representative of the target's wide-ranging functions. Thus, we further discuss the molecular details of proteasome-mediated activity of the immune response for virus-mediated inflammatory heart disease. We summarize how the spatiotemporal flexibility of the proteasome might be tackled for therapeutic purposes aiming to mitigate virus-mediated adverse activation of the immune response in the heart.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02620 fatcat:kq3wx4zz5vc2lggsamzrrqkbvy