Lipidomics reveals significant alterations associated with exclusive enteral nutrition treatment in adult patients with active Crohn's disease
Annals of Translational Medicine
Crohn's disease (CD), a type of inflammatory bowel disease, is a chronic idiopathic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with an increasing global incidence. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a diet therapy that is effective in the management of active CD with unknown etiology. Lipid metabolism plays an important role in CD and may be associated with EEN treatment. This study compared the plasma lipid profiles before and after EEN in adults with active CD to those of healthy controls
... Methods: Eleven adult patients with active CD who received enteral nutrition formula treatment for 12 weeks were included, along with 17 HCs. The profiles of 869 plasma lipid species were measured, and inflammatory and nutrition-associated indices were evaluated in the patients. Results: Nine patients achieved clinical remission following 12 weeks of EEN treatment, and four achieved mucosal healing. Before EEN, 80 lipid species and 17 lipid classes were significantly different between patients with CD and HCs. After EEN treatment, 103 lipid species and 12 lipid classes were significantly different between patients with CD and HCs. Significant changes in 7 lipid classes and 38 lipid species were observed between the pre-vs. post-treatment CD patients. The levels of simplified glucosylceramide series, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylcholine increased, while those of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol diphosphate decreased significantly after EEN. These lipid classes and species were associated with the inflammatory and nutritional indices. Pathway analysis suggested the metabolism of arachidonic acid, glycerophospholipids, linoleate, and phosphatidylinositol phosphate was related to the EEN mechanism. Conclusions: EEN induces alterations in multiple lipid classes and species, leading to clinical improvements. Lipid metabolism may be involved in the EEN anti-inflammatory effect.