Hierarchical Patch-Based Sparse Representation—A New Approach for Resolution Enhancement of 4D-CT Lung Data
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) plays an important role in lung cancer treatment because of its capability in providing a comprehensive characterization of respiratory motion for high-precision radiation therapy. However, due to the inherent high-dose exposure associated with CT, dense sampling along superior-inferior direction is often not practical, thus resulting in an inter-slice thickness that is much greater than in-plane voxel resolutions. As a consequence, artifacts such as
... lung vessel discontinuity and partial volume effects are often observed in 4D-CT images, which may mislead dose administration in radiation therapy. In this paper, we present a novel patch-based technique for resolution enhancement of 4D-CT images along the superior-inferior direction. Our working premise is that anatomical information that is missing in one particular phase can be recovered from other phases. Based on this assumption, we employ a hierarchical patch-based sparse representation mechanism to enhance the superior-inferior resolution of 4D-CT by reconstructing additional intermediate CT slices. Specifically, for each spatial location on an intermediate CT slice that we intend to reconstruct, we first agglomerate a dictionary of patches from images of all other phases in the 4D-CT. We then employ a sparse combination of patches from this dictionary, with guidance from neighboring (upper and lower) slices, to reconstruct a series of patches, which we progressively refine in a hierarchical fashion to reconstruct the final intermediate slices with significantly enhanced anatomical details. Our method was extensively evaluated using a public dataset. In all experiments, our method outperforms the conventional linear and cubic-spline interpolation methods in preserving image details and also in suppressing misleading artifacts, indicating that our proposed method can potentially be Manuscript applied to better image-guided radiation therapy of lung cancer in the future. Index Terms-Adaptive dictionary, four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) lung data, hierarchical patch-based sparse representation, resolution enhancement.